Monday, June 20, 2011

Jesus Christ Was Amyntas of Galatia

by Ranajit Pal

Christ Came From Phrygia, the Land of Attis and Cybele

        The lack of archaeological trace of Christ and his men from Palestine is a stern reminder that they belong to a different era and land. Paul's letters pertain to the earliest Christians who were from Galatia, Rome and other places but not Galilee. This conclusively proves that Jesus was not a GalileanThe large overlap between the mythologies of Jesus and Attis also makes it likely that Jesus was a Phrygian.  His so-called links with Galilee remind one of Buddhist history where Gotama was placed in Nepal by the thug A. Fuhrer[1] although there is no proof for it. His chronology in the gospels is also widely suspected to be false; Guignebert wrote about an uncertainty of 15 years, but if one ventures a little farther back (~50 B. C.), the scenario gets almost magically transformed and Jesus can be seen as a great historical figure.
       The crucial fact about the historical Jesus is that his name was Isa Amen (Rev. iii. 14), or Amyntas, whose palace was at Isauria, and that he was pitted against a cruel dictator of history, Augustus, who claimed to be the true 'son of god'. This takes Jesus' birth to about 56 B.C. and crucifixion to 25 B.C. and solves the problems of not only his historicity but also that of St. Paul and his other associates. The only way of shaking off the Jinx that has dogged the history of Christianity for ages is to discard the false birth-date of 0AD.

The Defiling of Jesus Christ by Unwary Historians

     Although mainstream historians routinely chant stale old formulae, an amateur researcher, Francesco Carotta, has brilliantly focused on Christianity's Roman links. This is a great leap forward that frees Jesus studies from the dank Galilean setting which is akin to Nepal in Buddhist history. However, Carotta's claim that the Jesus myth grew from that of Julius Caesar is far-fetched. Christianity could never have evolved had its founder not been a real person. Due to the Nepalese frauds Gotama Buddha was once seen as unhistorical. Ronald Syme wrote that Julius Caesar was slandered by Roman writers at the behest of Augustus. He can be seen to be a forerunner of Christ. St. Paul can also be seen to be a Roman. Carotta's idea that the gospel of Mark was originally written in Latin has been pooh-poohed by the 'experts' but this is unwarranted. The early Churches, Christian movements and inscriptions related to Christianity were all from Asia Minor which was termed ‘das Christliche Land’ by the learned Adolph von Harnack. The main Gospels are in Greek which was spoken in Galatia, not Galilee. In fact, Bithynia and Isauria echo Bethlehem and Isa.

'Jesus Stripped of His garments' by Albert Herbert. Courtesy

      There are no reliable sources for Paul's life outside the New Testament”, states the Encyclopedia Britannica, tacitly admitting failure of the mainstream history of Christianity. In a similar vein, H. Galsterer writes in the Cambridge Ancient History [2] that the period between Cicero and Tacitus is “one of the best known in ancient history”, but to this epoch (0–33 AD?) belongs Jesus Christ whose life history is mired in great uncertainties. The circumstance that all the Apostles and Evangelists also have no historical trace, is a sure warning that the present foundations are flawed, but instead of delving deeper into the problem, R. Dawkins and others have taken the easier route of branding Christ as mythical. The mood was set by Albert Schweitzer's meaningless statement, ‘Jesus can never be known by means of historical research, but his words can inspire people in any age’. Bertrand Russell had a similar hasty and ill-considered view.
      Sadly, St. Paul, whose history has been reduced to ashes by the naïve historians, is not only the greatest figure of Christianity (next to Jesus), but also a great figure of world history. J. D. Crossan notes that the titles ‘Prince of Peace’, ‘Savior of the World’, ‘Redeemer’ and ‘Son of God’ had been adopted by Augustus before Jesus, and almost puts Jesus in the dock which is unsound. Nietzsche also simple-minde-dly echoed Gibbon and likened Christianity to a 'vampire that sucked the blood out of the Roman Empire' but this is a shocking indiscretion.

Fransesco Carotta is Almost Right, Julius Caesar Knew Jesus Amen or Amyntas
       Julius Caesar must have known Amyntas. Carotta speaks of the relations between Jesus and Julius Caesar but if Amyntas is recognized as the true Jesus Amen yet another link between Jesus Christ and Julius Caesar emerges that has escaped the notice of all. It can be easily seen that The Celtic King Deiotarus had supported Pompey after after the victory of Julius Caesar against Pompey he realized that he was in great danger. When Julius Caesar arrived he donned a supplicant's dress and begged for mercy.  Caesar was magnanimous and restored his royal dress. This was one of the most dramatic episodes of history but there are some possibilities that may underlie this pardon. Was young Amyntas, the young grandson of deiotarus (~12 yrs) present at the occasion? As Cicero reminds us Julius Caesar had reasons to be grateful to Deiotarus, the father of Adobogiona.In 45 B.C., one year before the assassination of Julius Caesar, another grandson of Deiotarus, Castor, pleaded to the Roman authorities for his removal, accusing him of attempting to assassinate Julius Caesar when the latter, then Dictator, was his guest in Galatia. Deiotarus was a very wily and successful politician who was a friend and client of Cicero, who was once a governor of Cilicia. Cicero undertook his defence, the case being heard in Caesar's own house at Rome. Cicero is recorded to have said to Julius Caesar:

"... for it was king Deiotarus who raised your family, when abject and obscure, from darkness into light. Who ever heard of your father, or who he was, before they heard whose son-in-law he was?”

It can even be surmised that like Virgil (Eclogues 37 B.C.) Julius Caesar also saw Amyntas as a Messiah. This must be due to the prophesy of the Magi who were associated with the Mithradates family, not Jerusalem, the Nepal of Christianity. The fact that Antony made Amyntas the king of Galatia has to be seen from this perspective.

Amyntas of Galatia was Jesus Amen

The search for Jesus first takes one to his ancestor David who is usually placed in Judea but this may be incorrect. In the OT David is said to be a descendant of Rama who was not a Galilean emperor and Goliath's armor resembles Greek armor which was not used in Judea. After purging Jesus' history of layers of accreted myth, certain basic facts of his life emerge, namely, that

1) His name Isu Chrestos links him to Isauria-Galatia, not Galilee.
2) His true name was Amyntas or Amen (Rev. iii.14),
3) He was born about 56 B.C. and crucified in 25/26 B.C.,
4) He was related to Mithradates Chrestus and Asoka,
5) He was a Jew who followed the Hellenistic deity Mên Askaênos.
6) He was a great healer and teacher.
7) He was born near Pessinus which was Beth Lakhmu (House of fish)
8) He ruled India-Pakistan-Afghanistan after surviving crucifixion.
9) Amyntas' title 'Nikator' (Lat. Invictus) links him to Sol Invictus.

Amen, A Long Forgotten Name of Jesus Christ

      'The ancient Jews usually had only one name', writes the Encyclopedia Britannica, but this can be seen to be untrue. ‘Amen’ is the holiest incantation in Christianity and may be the most widely known word in human speech, yet it can be seen to contain the very essence of Christ - his name. In ordinary usage it is an expression of agreement, confirmation, or desire used by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In Jewish literature the term ‘Amen’ often had the sense of an affirmation, but as Rev. iii. 14 indicates, Amen was also a name of Jesus. The Jewish Encyclopedia states ;    
Another peculiarity is the use of  Aμην in Rev. iii.14 as a designation of Jesus. The attempted explanation of this use from II Cor. i. 20 is altogether unsatisfactory.

Incidentally, the Cross was not the earliest Christian symbol but Jesus was depicted by the demure fish symbol.   This leads one to the true name of Jesus as in nearly all the ancient

cultures, such as the Sumerian and Indian; the word for fish was ‘Min’. As ‘A’ was often an honorific ‘Min’ became ‘Amen’ or Amyntas. Amyntas was the Jesus of history cited by Virgil, Plutarch, Cassius Dio, Strabo and many others. In 37 B.C when Virgil first published his Eclogues, Antony made Amyntas the King of Galatia which may have raised great hopes among people of Asia Minor. The name Amen may have been deliberately suppressed in order to hide true history and present Jesus as a flawless superhuman being. It is also likely that the Gospels were falsified at the behest of Augustus.

Amyntas, a Personification of Attis on Earth

        While looking for evidence of early Christianity in Rome or Asia-Minor, it has to be borne in mind that early 1st or 2nd century Christianity was very different from the mature 4th century Christianity, and probably had pagan associations. The Montanists were Christians and some Attis worshipers,

Attis reclining. Courtesy:

who justifiably saw Amyntas as a personification of Attis, can be seen as early Christians. Phrygia (Pessinus) was the home of both Attis and Amyntas. The Greeks strongly disliked the bull slaughter associated with Mithra and also had a horror of the emasculated Attis. Being a Hellenized Jew Amyntas also must have had similar sentiments. As his headdress reveals, Attis was seen as a solar deity who was identified with the moon god Men. The fact that Amyntas followed the deity Men Askaenos clearly reveals his links with Attis.

    Jesus the Lamb

    If Amyntas is recognized as the true Jesus, all the so-called problems of his historicity disappear almost magically. Jesus is often called a lamb and Strabo writes that Amyntas was the owner of 300 flocks of sheep. This great shepherd was surely Jesus Amen as Strabo’s other data on Amyntas also largely agree with the Gospels. Amyntas is not only cited by all the ancient writers, his face on his coins from India and Galatia bears a striking similarity to the face of Jesus known from later pictures. The Indian coins of Amyntas suggest that he had survived crucifixion and gone to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.

       A New Geography and Chronology (56-25 B.C.) 

          That the gospel chronology is false is widely suspected. Guignebert guessed that there could be an error of 15 years but no one suspected that it could be half a century. Yet, just one amendment, namely ‘15th year of Augustus’ (2nd Triumvirate, 43 B.C.) in place of ‘15th year of Tiberius’ in Luke 3.1 as the beginning of the ministry (~28 B.C.) of John the Baptist brings Jesus face to face with history. John was arrested shortly afterwards and Jesus' own ministry may have started about 26 B.C. when he was about 30 years old. This takes Jesus’ birth to about 56 B.C. and crucifixion to 25 B.C. and in one stroke solves the problems related to not only his own historicity but also that of many of his associates.

Augustus, the 'Wicked Priest' and the godfather of disinformation

How did this appalling error creep in? St. Luke can be seen to be the priest-king Lycomedes who was a contemporary and could never have linked John's ministry to Tiberius. The finger of suspicion points to Augustus who probably encouraged fake gospel writers. He claimed to be a ‘son of god’ and must have hated Amyntas who was the son of the chief priest of the Great Mother at Pessinus and may have had a similar attribute. Tacitus wrote about large-scale falsification of history by Roman rulers, the worst being Augustus. Horace warned of the dangers to the life of Asinius Pollio (St. Paul) who gave shelter to the Alexandrian historian Timagenes when he was being hounded by Augustus. His bilingual inscription at Ancyra has been hailed as the 'Queen of inscriptions' by Mommsen who overlooked that these were located precisely at the centres of Amyntas and were dazzling media exercises aimed at stifling Christian history.

Virgil's Messiah and an 'Accident of Dates'

          That the present chronology of Jesus is false can be inferred from the lack of any trace of Jesus or Christ in the archaeology of Palestine (AD 0-33). This can also be seen from a careful study of the work of the poets Virgil and Ovid. Forty years before the supposed year of birth, Virgil, probably influenced by the prophesy of the Magi, speaks of a child who will bring back the Golden Age, banish sin, and restore peace. Unaware of the chronological trap, scholars have inverted plain logic, and have turned Virgil into a Prophet. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church calls this an 'accident of dates' which is totally baseless. Virgil brackets Amyntas together with Apollo which shows his great respect for him. Moreover Amyntas was related to the line of Mithradates VI through his mother’s line and as A. Mayor writes[4], the house of Mithradates was associated with the Magi, comets and stars. The linking of the incident with Palestine appears to be totally unnecessary although his crucifixion may have taken place in Syria-Palestine.

     The Mysterious Banishment of Ovid

        A more definitive warning comes from the mysterious banishment of Ovid. The Encyclopedia Britannica makes a dubious prophecy - 'The reasons for Ovid's exile will never be fully known', and further states;

Of the many explanations that have been offered of this mysterious indiscretion, the most probable is that he had become an involuntary accomplice in the adultery of Augustus' granddaughter, the younger Julia, who also was banished at the same time. In 2 BC her mother, the elder Julia, had similarly been banished for immorality, and the Ars amatoria had appeared while this scandal was still fresh in the public mind. These coincidences, together with the tone of Ovid's reference to his offense, suggest that he behaved in some way that was damaging both to Augustus' program of moral reform and to the honour of the imperial family.

      This is a lame dialectic. Tacitus wrote that Augustus was a crook and a liar. The 'sexual offences' of the two Julias and others may have been wicked ploys to eliminate those he disliked. His own sexual conduct was not beyond reproach. His sexual liaisons with Maecenas' wife Terentia are well known, and Caligula accused him of sexual intercourse with his daughter Julia, which also may not be untrue. It is significant that the law courts and the Senate were sidetracked for banishing Ovid. Why was Silanus not punished? Augustus also had to banish and execute Julia's religiously inclined husband Paullus and his grandson Agrippa Postumus at the same time which points to a Palace revolt favouring another 'son of god'. F. Norwood[5] writes that Julia's incarceration was not due to adultery but her role in the alleged 'conspiracy' of Paullus against Augustus. Paullus was a member of the Arval Brotherhood which had a group of 12 priests reminiscent of Jesus' 12 brethren. Augustus revived their practices to enforce his own cult of 'son of god' which was probably resented by Paullus and this may be the crux of his 'conspiracy'. Tacitus writes that Postumus was not guilty.

       Ovid and the First Christian Circle of History 

          It is well known that the 'unauthorized' religion which Pomponia Graecina, the wife of A. Plautius, was tried for practicing, during the reign of Claudius, was Christianity. Ovid and Julia the younger probably also engaged in worship associated with an unauthorized 'son of god'. It is very likely that P. Pomponius Graecinus, the father of Pomponia, also had Christian sympathies. The fact that he was a friend of Ovid, again hints that Ovid belonged to the oldest Christian circle. Virgil also may have admired Jesus Amen. That he did not publish the Aeneid may be due to the passages of praise for Augustus which he was forced to include. It is likely, although not certain, that Sextus Pompeius and Junius Gallio to whom also Ovid appealed for help from Pontus, had similar Christian sympathies. Ronald Syme writes[6] that Passienus Blandus who was a preceptor of Tiberius was the first Roman knight who became a teacher. Seneca groups Passienus with great orators such as Asinius Pollio and Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus. Next in his opinion came the tetradium (set of four) which included Junius Gallio. Seneca also had glowing praise for Asinius Gallus, who according to Seneca was overshadowed only by the great Asinius Poliio, his father. This Junius Gallio may have been associated with St. Paul at Corinth. St. Paul appears to be the great Asinius Pollio. Everett Ferguson[7] links Paul to another Junius Gallio of the Claudian era inscription (~51 AD) which seems to be a mistake.

Gold Coins of Jesus Amyntas and his Palace at Isauria

         The lack of relics of Jesus Christ has emboldened the skeptics who have frowned upon his historicity, but the historians almost habitually sought him in the wrong places and in the wrong era. If Jesus is recognized as Amyntas all the doubts about Jesus’ relics turn out to be unfounded. The gold coins of Amyntas of Galatia are a kind of numismatic wonder. Although some of these are thought to be fakes, Wroth held that at least two in the British Museum are genuine. It is indeed surprising that the Romans allowed a client-king to issue gold coins, but Amyntas was no ordinary figure.

 Gold-coin of Jesus Amen of Galatia  Courtesy

Amyntas had lost his life carrying out the duties of his position”, writes B. M. Levick in the Cambridge Ancient History[8], which is true but there is more to Amyntas than what the reports of Strabo, Cassius Dio or Plutarch reveal. Great scholars such as Sir W. W. Tarn and A. K. Narain were greatly surprised by the Indian coins of Amyntas and Hermaeus but failed to realize that these belong to Jesus Amen and St. Thomas.

An Indian Coin of Amyntas-Nikator. Picture courtesy O. Bopearachchi
Strabo wrote that the Romans gave Isaura to Amyntas where he built a palace for himself, after destroying the old structures. He also began constructing a massive defensive wall nearly three miles in circumference. The work on the wall was all but completed when Amyntas was called away to subjugate the ferocious mountain tribe of the Homonadeis. Strabo wrote that the wall was built to protect Amyntas’ new royal residence on the site of the Isaura Vetus. Incidentally archaeologists have identified this wall which should be recognized as a Christian relic of Jesus Amen.

 Augustus’ Destruction of the Temple of Mên Askaênos

Writing about the evil genius Augustus, M. Grant echoes Suetonius and exhibits a total lack of caution or introspection[9],

With unlimited patience, skill, and efficiency, he overhauled every aspect of Roman life and brought durable peace and prosperity to the Greco-Roman world.

Ronald Syme, on the other hand, was more circumspect. Syme writes that Strabo emphatically states that Amyntas’ kingdom was unlawfully annexed by Augustus. This is proven by Augustus’ mention of the opening of the gates of the Janus temple in 25 B.C. but his ominous silence on Amyntas. Unaware of the religious dimensions S. Mitchell[10]  writes,"The best information comes from Antioch, where commissioners were sent out immediately after Amyntas' death to administer his inheritance. One of their tasks was to break up the possessions of Mēn Askaēnos, that is presumably the land which lay in the broad plain overlooked by the temple itself
Men with Phrygian cap in a coin of Julia Domna  Courtesy
 on top of Karakuyu. If the purpose of this action was to make land available for new settlers, we should expect the colony to have been founded very soon after Amyntas' death. Coins issued by Antioch in Ad 76, by Cremna and Lystra under Marcus Aurelius between AD 270 and 275, all with legends and types recalling their foundation by Augustus, have been interpreted as centennial issues, reckoned from an original date of 25 BC." Ronald Syme, a far more careful historian, emphatically states that the so-called 'will' of Amyntas favouring the Roman state was a forgery. But the coins may have been issued to commemorate something far more significant. Mitchell writes that Antioch (Pisidian), Lystra and tavium were sister cities but fails to note that these three cities were the strongholds of Amyntas. Brogitarus' palace was at Tavium. 
       As Strabo was from Amaseia in Pontus and his close relatives were officers in Mithradates' administration, he may have been an admirer of Amyntas, yet probably to the fear of Augustus he could not describe the religious aspects of Amyntas' activities. But that Amyntas could have been a 'son of god' can be seen from that his father, King Brogitarus was the high priest of the Great Mother at Pessinus (Piscis=fish), the holiest centre of the Roman world and his mother Adobogiona, daughter of the Celtic King Deiotarus (‘Divine Bull’), may also have played an important role in the holy shrine. Both Brogitarus and Adobogiona were honoured in antiquity[11] by people who must be seen as the earliest Christians.

    The wicked ‘Son of God’ and the early Churches

In his book entitled 'Jesus and Gospel', G. Stanton of Cambridge University states that in the early post-Easter period, the Gospel of Jesus was heard against the backdrop of a rival set of `gospels' concerning the imperial cult of Augustus. He also examines the earliest criticisms of Jesus and claims concerning his resurrection. Curiously he places Paul in Antiochia Pisidia yet, due to chronological delusions, fails to realize that this was a great centre of Jesus Amyntas whose temple of Mēn Askaēnos was destroyed by Augustus who erected his own temple there. The picture of Paul presented by scholars such as N. T. Wright also lacks any semblance of realism. Owing to lopsided chronological concepts, Wright overlooks the straightforward implications of Augustus' fascination for the title 'son of God'. Although Stanton assumes Jesus' title 'son of god' to be derived from that of Augustus, this is not certain. Neither Wright nor Stanton is aware that the similarities between the mythologies of Jesus and Attis suggest a Phrygian link of Jesus. Augustus' claim to be 'son of god' was based on Julius Caesar's posthumous adoption of him as his 'son'. The divine status of Julius Caesar was based on his claim of being a descendant of Aeneas who supposedly founded Rome. On the contrary, Amyntas, the son of the chief priestess of the Great Mother at Pessinus, had a far stronger claim to the title of 'son of god'. Although Augustus was older than Amyntas it is possible he did not attach any importance to the title before about 28 B.C. Everett Fergusson clearly writes that Augustus' fascination for the title became noticeable only after 28 B.C. According to the gospels Jesus Amen assumed a new religious role three years before his crucifixion.
     “When Augustus imposed the Roman Peace on Pisidia he was unconsciously paving the way for Saint Paul, on his first missionary journey, to land in Pamphylia and travel unmolested to Antioch-in-Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe.“, wrote the learned Arnold Toynbee, which turns Augustus into a kind of vanguard of Christianity but this cannot be true. Stanton overlooks that after ousting Amyntas and annexing his dominions, Augustus founded colonies of legionary veterans in the Pisidian Antioch, Cremna, Lystra, Olbasa, Parlais and Comama and almost miraculously the early Christian Churches sprang up in the same locations. It is natural to suspect that most of these locations were already strongholds of Amyntas and although Augustus wanted to wipe out the local communities of early Christians by his legionary veterans, the gospels indicate that in the long run his plans did not bear fruit. 
     Christ and Chrestus

       The intense Roman hatred against Jesus is steeped in history. The name ‘Jesus’ is sacerdotal, but the name ‘Christ’ has a historical tag. Indeed Christ seems to have been related to Mithradates Chrestus (~120 B.C.) and Mithradates VI Eupator, the greatest enemy of Rome. Mithradates Chrestus was distantly related to the Seleucids and the Mauryas. To understand how Amyntas could be the king of both India and Galatia it has to be noted that Chandragupta Maurya was a king of both India and the Pontus area. Mithradates II (ό κτιστής), king of Pontus was Chandragupta Maurya. Strabo mentioned Sandaracurgium (Strab. 12.3.40), and Gangra, the royal residence of Morzeüs (Strab. 12.3.41) but missed that Mithradates-II was the great Indian king Chandragupta Maurya. Gangra echoes Ganga. Chandragupta’s Suganga Palace on the Ganga, (actually on the Indus, the earlier Ganga) was famous.

     Persecution of the Apostles and the Evangelists

Unfortunately the history of Christianity has suffered not only due to vicious Augustan propaganda but also the inability of the writers of the day such as Pliny, Seneca, Suetonius and even Tacitus to view the new Christian religion in a proper perspective. Philo and Josephus were valuable witnesses but their testimony is far from impartial. Historical data, therefore, has to be sifted by indirect means. One precious criterion is Roman persecution. Much has been written about Persecution of Christians at the hands of Claudius and Nero but the chief villain, Augustus, has escaped unnoticed due to chronological delusions.
Sadly, St. Paul, whose history has been reduced to ashes due to the naïveté of the historians, is not only the greatest figure of Christianity (next to Jesus), but also a stalwart of world history comparable to Diodotus-I/Asoka[3]. Early Christianity, as Adolf von Harnack pointed out, had more to do with Asia Minor than Galilee. Also important in this respect were Syria and Rome. After Amyntas’ crucifixion, Christianity first took roots on Syrian soil. In the new scenario one is pleasantly surprised to find St. Paul who was Gaius Asinius Pollio, described as the 'shinning glory' of the age by Sir Ronald Syme[12]J. D. Crossan and J. L. Reed have attempted in vain to find the Paul of history without discarding the birth-date of 0AD. Crossan rightly paints Paul as a dedicated successor of Jesus who promoted Jesus' vision of a Kingdom of God on earth against the concept of world peace under Roman hegemony but is unable to visualize the nature of this Kingdom as Jesus Amen was also a king of India. The history of Asinius Pollio reveals a striking similarity with that of St. Paul. Asinius Pollio was inspired by the Hellenistic (and Buddhistic) ideal of the Brotherhood of Man and the same is true of Paul who hated the idea of priests as bridges between God and humans. Josephus, however, mentions a Pollio the Pharisee who may have intruded into the gospels. He may have been foisted by Augustus to confuse the true message of Paul. Josephus also mentions his close associate Sameas who may be the infamous Simon the Magus. 
 A striking confirmation of the present chronology and geography can be seen from the presence of Matius the friend of Julius Caesar mentioned by Cicero who is clearly the ‘sinner’ St. Matthew“Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s” says St Matthew ( 22:21). It is difficult not to see the similarity of ethos in Matius' letters. St. Mathew was a tax-collector and a very rich man. So was Matius.
Furthermore St. Peter, St. Mark and St. Luke may be identified as Publius Petronius, Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus (and/or Marcus Lollius) and the priest-king Lycomedes. It is possible that Asinius Pollio first learnt about the misdeeds of Augustus from Messalla Corvinus who was the Roman governor of Syria.

  Pessinus in Bithynia was the true Bethlehem 

        The true birth-place of Jesus Christ has eluded scholars for centuries. Bethlehem is named by Luke and Mathew but where exactly was the city? As archaeologists have not found any relics of Jesus from Bethlehem in Palestine, many scholars have doubted the Gospel accounts[13]. This is unjustified. The fault is not of the Gospels but geography. To find Bethlehem or Beth Lakhmu, the meaning of the name has to be analyzed. Tell ed-Duweir, identified as the site of biblical LaPublish Postchish is one of the cities which may have been Beth Lakhmu. It is one of the largest and most prominent mounds in southern Israel. ‘Lox’ in old English and Armenian meant Salmon[14], and in Tocharian B, Laks meant ‘fish’. Thus Beth Lakhmu may have been linked to a goddess symbolized by the fish. Many fish-bones have been found by archaeologists at Lachish which may indicate a cultic significance. This is clearly hinted by the name Ops (Sanskrit and Sumerian Apsu) of the goddess. The problem is that it was abandoned in the late Hellenistic age which leaves a gap of about a century before the date of Amyntas. The gap is not a very wide one and further research may throw new light on the status of Lachish but at present it is rather difficult to associate it with Jesus Amen. Pessinus existed as far back as 700 BC and the legendary King Midas is said to have ruled Phrygia from here. Another city that may have been known as Bethlehem may be Leucopolis of Pliny which has almost an identical name and which appears to have been in Galatia or Nicaea[15]. Mathew is known to have been associated with Antioch and Luke may also be linked to Lycaonia where Amyntas ruled. In his Indian coins Amyntas calls himself a Nikator, which may have had a geographical sense. Nicaea did not always stand for the famous city in Bythinia but a much wider area which bordered Galatia. As Amyntas’ father Brogitarus was the chief priest of the Great Mother of Pessinus it is likely that he was born here. It was the most sacred religious centre in the Roman world[16]. The goddess was variously known as Maia, Ops (Apsu), Rhea, Tellus (Earth), and Ceres. 
The 2-horse Biga was a symbol of Jesus as known from the famous depictation of Jesus in the St. Peter's Basilica. The biga in a silver disk found from Pessinus clearly links the site with the historical Jesus.

 The Biga in a 3rd cent. Pessinus silver disk and a mosaic of Jesus in St. Peter’s Basilica
  Who killed Jesus? The Romans did it, helped by the Jerusalem Priests

       The crucifixion of Jesus presents a myriad of problems for the historian. There is no corroboration of the episode from sober history and crucifixion was usually reserved for the lower rank of people, not kings or client kings, but nothing was beyond Augustus who had banished Ovid and nearly decimated his own family in the blind pursuit of self-aggrandizement. J. D. Crossan brands the gospel's imputation of the blame for Jesus' 'death' on the Jews as the 'longest lie', an epithet which should be reserved for the date of 0AD for Jesus' birth. But if the Jews are exonerated, only the Romans remain in the field as Jesus' killers but Crossan does not have the equipment to pursue them. He denies the historicity of the gospel narratives and calls them 'prophecy historicized', i.e. written by later authors who looked back at the Old Testament and other early materials and then projected those prophesies on whatever historical episodes they could lay hands on. This is not wholly untrue but although the gospels cannot be accepted as history, it is improper to dismiss them totally. Also it seems probable that the Jerusalem Temple priests joined hands with Augustus to bring down Amyntas. 

   Crucifixion of Jesus, Polemo of Pontus, Dynamis and St. Barnabas

        It is well known that the names Mithradates, Pharnaces, Pharnabazus etc were timeless ones. This helps in identifying St. Barnabas who was clearly Darius, son of Pharnaces II who was also called Pharnaces or Pharnabazus. It is very likely that he is the same as Barabbas the prisoner who was set free before Jesus' crucifixion. This implies that St. Barnabas was a distant relative of Jesus Christ. His sister was Queen Dynamis who was called Philoromaios and was very close to Augustus. It is possible that she, together with Augustus trapped Jesus Amyntas and brought about his fall in 26/25 B.C. Her husband was Polemo of Pontus whose name may been transformed into Pontius PilateAugustus' treachery was probably a very well kept secret which was unknown even to people such as Asinius Pollio for a long time. Augustus became seriously ill after 25 B.C. and started laying greater emphasis on his being the 'son of god' which seems to be a reaction. The behaviour of Messalla Corvinus towards Augustus also changed sharply after 25 B.C. It is not impossible that Cornelius Gallus' surprising death also was linked to Amyntas' fall. The only indication comes from Strabo who gives two versions of Amyntas' fall. It appears that the later version which mentions treachery of a woman is nearer the truth. 

     Jesus and St. Thomas in India

The coins of Amyntas from Galatia as well as India, shows his true stature, yet scales have not fallen from the eyes of the historians. The Encyclopedia Britannica focuses on Archelaus but Amyntas finds no place. The largest silver double decadrachms of history were issued by Amyntas. J. J. Pollitt [17] writes without any clue;

In the 1st century B.C. when the Indo-Greeks were largely cut off from the west and were slowly being engulfed by the ‘barbarian’ (in the Greek sense) people around them, coins were still flaunted like banners of Hellenism. The most impressive examples are the great silver double decadrachms issued by a king named Amyntas of whom little is known except that he ruled in the Kabul valley somewhere around 85-75 B.C. These are the largest silver coins ever issued in the ancient world. Amyntas’ portrait with its crested helmet clearly looks back to, and emulates with pride, the portraits of earlier Bactrian kings. On the reverse an Olympian-looking seated Zeus, with scepter and palm branch, holds in his hand an image of his warrior daughter Athena. Around these figures the Greek letters boldly proclaim, ‘of King Amyntas, the Conqueror.’ Whom he conquered is not known, and, taking a broad view of Hellenistic history, not important. In a generation or two the Indo-Greeks vanished. But it is typical of their society that, even in this phase, Amyntas wanted the world to think of him, like Seleukos I long before, as a Nikator.

This is a gross misreading of history. Today the world does think of Amyntas, albeit by another name[18]. Nikator in Greek corresponds to the Latin ‘Invictus’ which may link Amyntas to Sol Invictus. Pollitt links Seleucus to Amyntas but misses the link with the half-Seleucid Asoka or Diodotus-I. Amyntas was associated with the Hellenistic deity[19] Mên Askaênos of Antiochia Pisidia which echoes the name of Asoka[20] who sent religious emissaries[21] to many countries. Will Durant recognized Asoka’s role in the rise of new religions. Pollitt’s error is a result of Jones’ false identification of Palibothra, due to which all the dates of Indian history are uncertain[22]Tarn dated Amyntas’ coins to about 50 B.C. which is nearer the truth than O. Bopearachchi’s date of 95-90 B.C. and R. C. Senior’s date of 80-65 B.C. S. Konow suggested 25 B.C. which coincides with Amyntas’ ‘death’. It is possible that Jesus Amyntas came to India after surviving crucifixion about 25/26 B.C. Tarn wrote that Amyntas was the father of Hermaeus Soter but this lacks any sound basis. Amyntas and Hermaeus were clearly Jesus Christ and St. Thomas. E. Herzfeld wrote that the Magi went from the Palace at Kuh-i-Khwaja in Seistan. Jesus also may have come to Seistan, the land of Prophets. Jesus' relics may also be sought in the splendid city of Ai-Khanoum which is named after Alexander (Ale-Khan-Dar). 
Phrygian Cybele on a Chariot (Ai-Khanoum, 2nd cent. B.C. ?). Court.  Singh, 94
St. Thomas' Conversion of Kujula Kadphises to Christianity 

      The links of Christianity with Buddhism are strong as both grew from the crucible of Mithraism. The Indian coins of Amyntas suggest that he had survived crucifixion and gone to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. A close associate of Jesus was St Thomas who can be seen to be Hermaeus Soter. St. Matthew wrote that the Three Magi followed a star which they saw as a sign that the King of the Jews had been born and brought gifts (gold, frankincense and myrrh) for the infant. 

A joint issue of Hermaeus and Kujula Kadphises  Courtesy 
The fact that the Kushan king Kujula Kadphises (34 - 20 B.C.) put Hermaeus' bust on his coins has surprised all scholars but no one realized that this was a commemoration of Kujula's  conversion to Christianity or Yavugasa Dharma by Hermaeus who was St. Thomas. Kujula also put the bust of Augustus on his coins. Kujula seems to be the same as Artaxes II (34-20 B.C.) who sought Augustus' help but was refused. This may resolve the problem of Indian dates. The name Artaxes is Arta-Uksha which is the same as Kadphises or Gud-Vrsa. Bachhofer saw it as plain economic convenience which is shallow. Kujula may have failed to get Augustus' support due to his Christian sympathies. Augustus wanted to wipe out the legacy of Amyntas-Jesus.     
          Was Tigranes III the same as Vima Taktu and did he meet Augustus who mentions the Indians in the Res Gestae? About Augustus the Wikipedia states without any circumspection,

“He also wanted to relate to and connect with the concerns of the plebs and lay people. He achieved this through various means of generosity and a cutting back of lavish excess. In the year 29 BC, Augustus paid 400 sesterces each to 250,000 citizens, 1,000 sesterces each to 120,000 veterans in the colonies, and spent 700 million sesterces in purchasing land for his soldiers to settle upon. He also restored 82 different temples to display his care for the Roman pantheon of deities. In 28 BC, he melted down 80 silver statues erected in his likeness and in honor of him, an attempt of his to appear frugal and modest.”

This is not factually untrue, but as Tacitus wrote, Augustus was a wicked dictator. There are signs of Hellenistic influence on Augustus and in the early stages of his rule he had allowed Asinius Pollio to restore the old edifice of Atrium Liberatatis and turn it into a library. But after 28 B.C. when Jesus Amen had probably assumed a religious role Augustus may have decided to eliminate him. The Cult of Magna Mater and the Cult of Isis had considerable impact in Rome but most important of all may have been the Cult of Zeus-Mitra which inspired Amyntas and Hermaeus.  Christianity took hold in Rome long before Constantine. However, it is possible that if he had an opportunity of meeting the flesh-and-blood Jesus, Constantine would probably have killed him for his ‘pagan’ inclinations.


[1] See T. A, Phelps, Lumbini, the Untold Story, .
[2] H. Galsterer, “The Administration of Justice”, in the “The Cambridge Ancient History, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-AD69”, p. 397
[3] Ranajit Pal, ‘An Altar of Alexander Now Standing Near Delhi’, Scholia, vol. 15, p. 78-101.
[4] A. Mayor, ‘The Poison King: The Life and Legend of Mithradates, Rome’s Deadliest Enemy”, Princeton University Press, 2010.
[5] F. Norwood, "The Riddle of Ovid's Relegatio", Classical Philology (1963) p. 158
[6] R. Syme, ‘The Augustan Aristocracy’, Oxford University Press, 1986.           
[7] E. Ferguson "Backgrounds of Early Christianity", Michigan, 2003.
[8] Cambridge Ancient history A.K. Bowman p. 650
[9] M. Grant, Encyclopedia Britannica. See under the headig ‘Augustus’.
[10] S. Mitchell, “Anatolia: land, men, and Gods in Asia Minor”, part I, p. 76.
[11] T. Derks and N. Roymans, “Ethnic constructs in antiquity: the role of power and tradition”, Amsterdam, 2009, p. 137.
[12] R. Syme, Op. cit. p. 200.
[13] Geza Vermes, ‘The Nativity: History and Legend, Penguin Press (2006), p. 22. Sadly Prof. Vermes ignores the early Judaism of India and Iran. See Ranajit Pal, Mithras Reader III. 
[14] This can also be inferred from the name Lakshmi of the daughter of the Indian god Shiva who was symbolized by the fish and was called Min (uksha). Ranajit Pal, Mithras Reader III
[15] J. A. Cramer, ‘A Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor’, vol. 2, p.183.
[16] This was one of the most sacred shrines in the western world. During the war with Hannibal in 204 BC, the Romans, had a Sibylline prophecy that the battle would be won if the “Idaean Mother” of Pessinus were brought to Rome, together with her sacred symbol (a small stone reputed to have fallen from the heavens). They transported the sacred black stone of the Phrygian Mother goddess, Cybele, or Cybebe, from Pessinus, and installed it in a temple on the Palatine. Even the priests were taken to Rome.
[17] J. J. Pollitt, ‘Art in the Hellenistic age’, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 289.
[18] In Buddhist India of the 3rd century B.C., Brotherhood of Man, not the Greek-Barbarian divide was the key theme. In a provincial tone Pollitt writes that ‘It is absurd to say that the Indo-Greek kingdom made a contribution to Hellenistic culture equivalent to that of the Attalids.’, but does not realize that there is little in Attalid Hellenism that can be fairly compared with the heroic deeds of Diodotus/Asoka in Bactria. Toynbee on the other hand wrote that the spirit of Hellenistic culture and Buddhism is the same.
[19] S. Mitchell, “Anatolia: land, men, and Gods in Asia Minor”, part II, p. 
[20] Ranajit Pal, ‘An Altar of Alexander Now Standing Near Delhi’, Scholia, vol. 15
[21] Due to the blunder of Sir William Jones, even Rhys-Davids doubted Asoka’s claim. See Ranajit Pal, ‘Non-Jonesian Indology and Alexander’, New Delhi, 2002. 
[22] Ranajit Pal, ibid.


  1. Dr Pal:

    This is an intriguing hypothesis, containing potential for development and begging numerous questions.

    Why should the Jesus Christ of the New Testament be based on an historical person? Some divine men are, though many others are abstract deities.

    Why should Greco-Romans (or Hellenes in general), who were in conflict with both Jews and Judaism in this period make a Jew their divine hero?

    You make frequent reference to a "Jesus Amyntas" as if that were the name of Amyntas of Galatia: is it?

    In Greco-India, there is a Amyntas Nikator
    "Bopearachchi places Amyntas c. 95-90 BCE, whereas Senior places him c. 80-65 BCE."
    Are you suggesting that this is Amyntas of Galatia?

    A small point: I think the gold coins of Amyntas of Galatia are regarded by experts as fake.

    You write: "Amyntas...his face on...his coins from India and Galatia bears a striking similarity to the face of Jesus known from later pictures." I suppose you mean the ones with the beard, which is a common-enough trait to make your observation meaningless. However, as early portraits of Jesus also showed him as a beautiful young man, in the likeness of Helios (and Alexander), your point is also wrong.

    You write: "Christianity took hold in Rome long before Constantine." If so, then there is a vacuum of reliable, contemporaneous evidence for this, so on what do you base your claim? I think you would do better to reference Mani and his Jesus Chrest, for this takes you to the region of Amyntas of Galatia.

    Best regards,

  2. Dear John,

    Thanks ! We think along similar lines. Today I am a bit worked up with the launch of the World Dignity University at Oslo University but shall come back to your interesting points later. Please elaborate on what you wrote about Mani and Jesus Chrest. You wrote 'this takes you to the region of Amyntas of Galatia'. Does it really?
    Best wishes,

    Dr. Ranajit Pal

  3. Mr. Terrence Phelps, who highlighted Dr. A.A. Fuhrer's frauds regarding the "discovery of Lumbini", has made the following comments about my idea that Amyntas of Galatia was Jesus;

    "You're missing out on James the Just, brother of Jesus, leader of the first church in Jerusalem (following the death of Jesus) and opponent of Paul. Check him out: he's hot stuff these days. Robert Eisenman (the maverick who broke the Catholic monopoly on the Dead Sea Scrolls, and rescheduled their dating) has some plausible theories that James was the 'Teacher of Righteousness' of the Scrolls, whilst Paul was 'The Liar'. interestingly, however, the earliest known Gnostics, the Mandaeans (who are still around) believe that Jesus was 'The Liar' and that John the Baptist was the Teacher (a notion which appears to have secretly found support among the Templars, the precursors of Freemasonry). But I have little doubt that Palestine was the place for Jesus: the destruction of the Temple and Josephus surely prove that."

  4. Dear John,

    >Why should the Jesus Christ of the New Testament be based on an historical person? Some divine men are, though many others are abstract deities.<

    If you tamper with history, you would always find it easier to brand Jesus as an abstract deity but I do not think you seriously doubt that Jesus was a historical person.

    >Why should Greco-Romans (or Hellenes in general), who were in conflict with both Jews and Judaism in this period make a Jew their divine hero? <

    Very interesting! The Hellenes were in conflict only with Judaism of the Palestinian variety but I find it very difficult to define Judaism in a wider context. I have written an article claiming that all the world religions seperated from a united core from Indo-Iran and that Gotama's father, who is given the appellative 'Yauda' in the Persepolis inscriptions, was some kind of a Jew. As the Mauryas and the Buddhists are said to have been allied this indicates that even Asoka/Diodotus-I was also some kind of a Jew. Jesus-Amyntas was distantly related to Seleucus/Asoka and was a Hellenized Jew who can be called even a Mahayana Buddhist. John my Buddhists are half-Greco-Macedonians.

    >You make frequent reference to a "Jesus Amyntas" as if that were the name of Amyntas of Galatia: is it?< It is not, but from the gospels you can justify the name Jesus Amen.

    >>In Greco-India, there is a Amyntas Nikator
    "Bopearachchi places Amyntas c. 95-90 BCE, whereas Senior places him c. 80-65 BCE."
    Are you suggesting that this is Amyntas of Galatia?<
    Yes, this is one of my principal arguments. If you are aware of R.C. Senior's recent somersaults regarding the dating of Gondophares, you would realize how flimsy the dating 80-65 B.C. is. At some stage Bopearachchi has to come to terms with Jones' blunders and Diodotus-I/Asoka.

    You may be right about the face of Amyntas on coins but this is what the writer in the website There are many types of faces on different coins.

    >A small point: I think the gold coins of Amyntas of Galatia are regarded by experts as fake.<
    Wroth, who is no mean authority, says that at least two in the British Museum are not fakes.

    >You write, "Christianity took hold in Rome long before Constantine." If so, then there is a vacuum of reliable, contemporaneous evidence for this, so on what do you base your claim?<

    Well I have written on Virgil and Ovid which supports this. Just look at Julia Domna and many others they were the early Christians. I can almost write a book on Christianity in Rome before Constantine.

    Best wishes,

    Dr. Ranajit Pal

  5. While looking for evidence of early Christianity in Rome or Asia-Minor, it has to be kept in mind that early 1st or 2nd century Christianity must have looked very different from the mature 4th century version, and probably had Pagan associations. The Montanists were Christians as were some Attis worshipers who justifiably saw Amyntas or Amen as a personification of Attis. From Amyntas' title Nikator, Sol Invictus may also be seen as a symbol of Jesus Christ.

  6. "The lack of archaeological trace of Christ and his men from Palestine is a stern reminder that they belong to a different era and land. Paul's letters pertain to the earliest Christians who were from Galatia, Rome and other places but not Galilee."

    And there it is. An absurdly illogical affirmation to kick off yet another gnostic rampage at fiction, into trying to dirty and defile historical truth and coopt the figure of Jesus to endorse crackpot cultism. And when the subject is gnosticism, it's actually serpent worship, or satanism, that's really at stake.
    So, making up facts, obscuring known facts (yes there were registers of Jesus in Roman Judea), recreating Jesus to be a crackpot idol worshiper, etc. etc.

  7. After a gap of two years what a post!

  8. Ai means ay in Turkish. Moon.Ai khanoum village was in Afghanistan.I do not quite undestand why Moon and star like Turkish flag found there. I went to Pessinus where temple of Kybele was found near Eskişehir, western part of Turkey. I also saw Afghanistan exhibition in British Museum.